European Journal of Charles K. Landis

Founder of Vineland

July 21, 1874.

Left Edinburgh at 8.30 by the Caladonia R. R. for Inverness. Edinburgh has clean streets, is well drained, has an excellent police and a good cab system. A part of the sewage is economized and run into a sluice, from which land is irrigated. From this land three and four crops of hay are cut in a season. The sewage of all cities should be utilized. Why can we not have the same clean streets, cab conveniences, and good government in our American cities?

By the recommendation of the hotel clerk, took first class carriage. He said the others would be very uncomfortable. The result was that I was by myself nearly all day. It is perfect folly for people to travel first class. The scenery from the railroad was disappointing. There is very little to be seen by railroad. Arrived at Inverness at 7 p. m., and stopped at a good hotel called the Station Hotel. It is excellent. Walked about the town until 9 o'clock and returned and went to bed tired with a cold. How people can live in this mist is past my comprehension. Heard people praising the Duke of Sutherland for getting a railroad built to develop his castle. Nothing said against him.

July 22, 1874.

Walked over Inverness and down the river Ness upon the other side, and across a foot suspension bridge to some shady and beautiful islands. Sat upon some walls and looked at the water until a school came along upon a picnic with the teachers. This was a pleasant sight. Returned to the town by a beautiful walk. It appears to me as though Scotland had been made as a place for poets and lovers. Met a man at work trimming a hedge, asked him his occupation. He said that he worked a garden farm and attended a vinery for house, fuel, and forty pounds a year. Upon this he had to maintain a family. This does not seem right.

Called upon Mr. Grant, who is to act as sub-agent in Inverness, to send emigrants to Vineland. He said he would use his best efforts.

Visited the battle field of Culloden. Read "Waverly" when a boy and have always felt an interest in the ill-fated chiefs and Charles Edward. Saw the trenches where the dead were buried. Greener than the surrounding grass, though it occurred over a hundred years ago. Strange to say, the immense boulder upon which the Duke of Cumberland stood to witness the battle was the only one in the field. It was of a form perfect enough to carve into a monument. Visited some laborers' cottages. They were mostly away. Several were extremely poverty-stricken. Went into one which was very neat. Stone floors, whitewashed walls, clean tins, and so forth. A clean-looking woman soon appeared. She was the wife of the poor cotter. Her husband obtained as wages ten stone of oatmeal, ten stone of potatoes every year, and fourteen pounds every six months. Upon this they supported themselves and four children. She was a good, sensible-looking woman. She said it was done by dint of saving, and there was nothing left. What a life in comparison to America!

From thence proceeded to Cawder Castle, the scene of Macbeth's history. It has been in the same family since the 12th century. The Earl comes to it once a year for a few weeks. He has two other castles in Wales. The castle was well kept up. They showed me the room in which Duncan was murdered. The ancestors' pictures hang in the hall. The grounds around it are very beautiful. Stately old trees. On return got caught in a rain storm. The drive there and back was along lovely roads and fields showing a high state of cultivation. Retired early and ordered them to call me at 6 a. m.